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Sample Lesson

Elementary Spanish
Greetings
Common Words
Sample Exercise
 
Sample Lesson: Greetings - Basic Vocabulary
Introduction

This Lesson will get you started in learning and memorizing basic vocabulary. Tables a-b include vocabulary you should begin memorizing. Table a contains the basic phrases for Greetings/Conversation. Learn them as phrases, and do not try to decipher their structure too much at this point. Table b contains basic vocabulary for different parts of speech. With these words you can already construct short sentences which are perfectly grammatical, using everyday vocabulary. This Lesson and the Tables will cover the following:

bullet   Greetings and Dialogues
bullet   Tables: Nouns, Verbs, Adjectives

Let us now turn to a study of Greetings.

Greetings and Dialogue

We have already touched upon the topic of forms of address; namely, Spanish has two ways of addressing a person as "you": and usted. The criteria for selecting one or the other include: age difference between persons, socio/economic/educational level between the persons, and family customs of respect. Refer to Table a for Greetings/Conversation vocabulary. A dialogue of greeting includes the following segments:

  1. Greeting word/phrase: Hola. ¿Qué tal? Buenos días. Buenas tardes. Buenas noches
  2. Greeting response: Buenos días. Buenas tardes. Buenas noches.
  3. Ask name:¿Cómo se llama? ¿Cómo te llamas?
  4. Name response: Me llamo Pedro. Mi nombre es Pedro. Soy Pedro.
  5. Pleased to meet you phrase: Mucho gusto. Encantado.
  6. Response: Igualmente. El gusto es mío.
  7. Ask how person is: ¿Cómo está usted? ¿Cómo estás (tú)? ¿Qué hay? ¿Qué pasa?
  8. Response: Bien. Así así. Regular. Mal
  9. A farewell: Adiós. Hasta luego. Hasta pronto. Hasta mañana.
  10. Response: similar to (9) above
Look over the dialogue below as a sample. Pablo is 24 years old - Don Arturo is 55 years old

  1. Pablo: Buenos días, Señor.
  2. Don Arturo: ¿Qué tal? ¿Cómo te llamas?
  3. Pablo: Me llamo Pablo, Señor, ¿y usted?
  4. Don Arturo: Me llamo Arturo Guzmán. Mucho gusto.
  5. Pablo: El gusto es mío. ¿Cómo está (usted) hoy?
  6. Don Arturo: Muy bien, gracias, ¿y tú?
  7. Pablo: Bastante bien. Hasta luego.
  8. Don Arturo: Hasta mañana.
You will note that two different forms of address are illustrated. In sentences (12, 16) Don Arturo addresses the younger Pablo with a phrase - ¿Cómo te llamas? ¿y tú? However, in sentences (13, 15) we see that Pablo addresses Don Arturo with usted. Therefore, even when the people do not know each other, and are just introducing themselves, it is very clear to each person whether he should use or usted. Don Arturo, being a much older person than Pablo has the choice of addressing Pablo as or usted. In some cultures, such as the Caribbean islands, people are less formal. In others, such as some interior regions of Mexico, they are more formal. You can construct similar dialogues changing around different phrases, as long as the tú - usted uses are clearly understood.

Make an effort to memorize the information in the Tables. It will facilitate your being able to use the Lessons to construct sentences. The articles are given only for the nouns where the ending is not distinctively masculine/feminine.


Table a - Greetings/Conversation Vocabulary
(Click on green symbol to listen)
English Spanish
  1. Good morning - Good day
  2. Good afternoon
  3. Good evening
  4. Hello
  5. How are you?
  6. How are you?
  7. Very well, thank you
  8. So-so
  9. Bad
  10. What is your name?
  11. What is your name?
  12. My name is Alicia.
  13. I am Pedro.
  14. Pleased to meet you.
  15. Delighted.
  16. The pleasure is mine.
  17. Good-bye.
  18. See you later - See you soon.
  19. See you tomorrow.
  20. Excuse me (getting attention).
  21. Excuse me (to pass by).
  22. I'm sorry.
  23. Please.
  24. You're welcomed.
  1. Buenos días
  2. Buenas tardes
  3. Buenas noches
  4. Hola
  5. ¿Cómo está (usted)? (formal)
  6. ¿Cómo estás? (familiar)
  7. Muy bien, gracias
  8. Regular/Así así
  9. Mal
  10. ¿Cómo se llama (usted)? (formal)
  11. ¿Cómo te llamas? (familiar)
  12. Me llamo Alicia.
  13. Soy Pedro.
  14. Mucho gusto.
  15. Encantado, -a (m/f)
  16. El gusto es mío
  17. Adiós.
  18. Hasta luego - Hasta pronto.
  19. Hasta mañana
  20. Perdón
  21. Con permiso
  22. Lo siento - Discúlpeme
  23. Por favor
  24. De nada


Table b - Common Words
Category - English Category - Spanish
PEOPLE

  1. aunt-uncle
  2. boss
  3. boyfriend-girlfriend
  4. brother-sister
  5. co-worker
  6. father
  7. friend
  8. grandfather-grandmother
  9. husband-wife
  10. mother
  11. store clerk
  12. student
  13. teacher-professor
  14. worker
ROOMS IN A HOUSE

  1. bathroom
  2. bedroom
  3. dining room
  4. living room
PLACES

  1. bank
  2. office
  3. post office
  4. school
  5. store
DAILY ITEMS

  1. book
  2. car
  3. check
  4. clothes
  5. dinner
  6. door
  7. food
  8. house
  9. keys
  10. lunch
  11. money
  12. pen
  13. phone
  14. shoes
ACTIVITIES - VERBS

  1. be (description)
  2. be (location - condition)
  3. buy
  4. call
  5. chat - converse
  6. clean
  7. come
  8. drink
  9. eat
  10. find
  11. go
  12. have
  13. take (with you)
  14. take (somewhere)
  15. wash
DESCRIPTIONS - ADJECTIVES
  1. American
  2. bad
  3. big
  4. blue
  5. friendly
  6. fun
  7. good
  8. hispanic
  9. interesting
  10. talkative
PERSONAS

  1. tía - tío
  2. el jefe
  3. novio - novia
  4. hermano - hermana
  5. compañero de trabajo
  6. padre, papá
  7. amigo - amiga
  8. abuelo - abuela
  9. esposo - esposa
  10. madre - mamá
  11. el/la dependiente
  12. estudiante - alumno
  13. maestro - profesor
  14. trabajador
CUARTOS EN LA CASA

  1. baño
  2. cuarto
  3. el comedor
  4. sala
LUGARES - SITIOS

  1. banco
  2. oficina
  3. correo
  4. escuela
  5. tienda
ARTICULOS DIARIOS

  1. libro
  2. auto - coche - carro
  3. el cheque
  4. ropa
  5. cena
  6. puerta
  7. comida
  8. casa
  9. las llaves
  10. almuerzo
  11. dinero
  12. bolígrafo
  13. teléfono
  14. los zapatos
ACTIVIDADES - VERBOS

  1. ser (description)
  2. estar (location - condition)
  3. comprar
  4. llamar
  5. conversar - platicar
  6. limpiar
  7. venir
  8. beber - tomar
  9. comer
  10. encontrar
  11. ir
  12. tener
  13. tomar (with you)
  14. llevar (somewhere)
  15. lavar
DESCRIPCIONES - ADJETIVOS
  1. americano
  2. malo
  3. grande
  4. azul
  5. amistoso
  6. divertido
  7. bueno
  8. hispano
  9. interesante
  10. hablador


Sample Exercise
(Click on green symbol to listen)

Instructions

Study the Tables above before completing the following exercise. In the blank, write the letter of the Spanish word on the right which matches the English on the left.

English Spanish
  1. _______house
  2. _______friendly
  3. _______to call
  4. _______You're welcomed
  5. _______boss
  6. _______worker
  7. _______food
  8. _______store
  9. _______blue
  10. _______delighted
  11. _______shoes
  12. _______clothes
  13. _______post office
  14. _______to come
  15. _______dinner
  16. _______pen
  17. _______to drink
  18. _______to have
  19. _______to go
  20. _______car
  1. beber
  2. jefe
  3. amistoso
  4. comida
  5. correo
  6. encantado
  7. cosecha
  8. llamar
  9. coche
  10. comedor
  11. trabajador
  12. venir
  13. bolígrafo
  14. zapatos
  15. tener
  16. azul
  17. casa
  18. cena
  19. de nada
  20. ir
  21. ropa
  22. tienda